Soltanzadeh , MD,ID
Professor of Pediatrics, Shaheed Beheshti
Of Medical Sciences , Tehran ,
medications are used for the treatment of influenza in children ?
Both of which block
the entry of influenza into host cells and inhibit a viral assembly
protein called M2
Because the M2
protein of influenza B strains is unaffected by these agents
are effective only against influenza A strains
Oseltamivir ( Tamiflu )
Useful for the
prophylaxis or treatment of both influenza A & B infection
( Relenza ) for
patients should TMP – SMX be avoided or used with caution
Fragile X syndrome
to any sulfonamide
Age of < 2 months
History of skin
Rash while receiving TMP-SMX
Which Antibiotic is
associated with the Red Man Syndrome?
The red mn
syndrome is a frequent occurrence with the rapid infusion
flushing of the Neck, Face and Thorax
release underlying this reaction
It is not mediated
Does not true
reaction can be avoided by slowing the rate of drug infusion
antagonist e.g. :
preventing this reaction
Name of 3 stages of
Catarrhal 1-2 wks
low grade fever , URI symptoms
Paroxysmal 2-4 wks sever cough
Convalescent 1-2 wks resolution of symptom
What is the most common
cause of Death in children with whooping cough ?
deaths are attributed to:
Which develops as a
secondary bacterial infection
These cases can be
missed during the paroxysmal phase
A new spiking
fever prompt a careful for pneumonia
Is the Erythromycin of
value in pertussis infection?
If used the first 14 days of illness or
Before the paroxysmal stage
can decrease the severity of symptoms during the paroxysmal stage
If the diagnosis is later should be administered to eliminate
the N.F. carriage of Bor. Pertussis
50 mg /k/d 14 days
Azithromycin 10/mg/k/d in one dose
Clarithromycin 10-20 mg/k/d divided in 2 dose for 5-7 d
prevent the development of pneumonia after a URI ?
Over 90% of URI
are used by Viruses
Children < 5 yrs
can experience 6-8 URI episodes per yr
not shorten their course or prevent the development of Pneumonia
Pediatrics ID j
Sternal edema is
classically the sign of what infection?
How does Hatchcocks
sign help distinguish swelling as a result : Mumps from caused by
Upward pressure applied to the angle of the mandible produces
tenderness with mumps ( Hatchcocks sign )
This maneuver produces no tenderness with Adenitis
Question 10 ?
What is the best
approach to diagnosing HSV Encephalitis in children ?
In the past :
diagnosis relied on Brain Biopsy
that analysis of CSF using the PCR > 98%of cases
May be more
sensitive than Brain Biopsy
Can Acyclovir be
used to prevent or treat oral HSV infections ?
In immunocompetent host :
Acyclovir benefit in primary HSV gingivostomatitis
Limited efficacy for the treatment of recurrent herpes
Topical Acyc. Has
not shown benefit in this setting .
oral Acyc. Can reduce the numbers of recurrence in Adults with
has not been studied in children.
Question 12 ?
Does Teething cause
Long a Doctrine of Grandmothers The suggested association between
teething and temperature
Elevation may have some bases in fact.
In one study of 46 healthy infants with rectal T. recorder
before the eruption the 1st tooth
Nearly half had a new temperature elevation of > 37.5 on
the day of eruption
Have shown some
slight temperature increase
In any event
elevated fever should not be ascribed simply to teething
Listen to the
Grandmothers , but verify